# Source code for scikits.odes.odeint

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Mon Feb 1 13:38:24 2016
@author: benny
"""
from __future__ import print_function
from copy import copy
from .ode import ode
[docs]def odeint(rhsfun, tout, y0, method='bdf', **options):
"""
Integrate a system of ordinary differential equations.
*odeint* is a wrapper around the ode class, as a convenience function to
quickly integrate a system of ode.
Solves the initial value problem for stiff or non-stiff systems
of first order ode's:
rhs = dy/dt = fun(t, y)
where y can be a vector, then rhsfun must be a function computing rhs with
signature:
rhsfun(t, y, rhs)
storing the computed dy/dt in the rhs array passed to the function
Parameters
----------
rhsfun : callable(t, y, out)
Computes the derivative at dy/dt in terms of t and y, and stores in out
y0 : array
Initial condition on y (can be a vector).
t : array
A sequence of time points for which to solve for y. The initial
value point should be the first element of this sequence.
method : string, solution method to use.
Available are all the ode class solvers as well as some convenience
shorthands:
======= ==============================================================
Method Meaning
======= ==============================================================
bdf This uses the 'cvode' solver in default from, which is a
variable step, variable coefficient Backward Differentiation
Formula solver, good for stiff ODE. Newton iterations are
used to solve the nonlinear system.
admo This uses the 'cvode' solver with option lmm_type='ADAMS',
which is a variable step Adams-Moulton method (linear
multistep method), good for non-stiff ODE. Functional
iterations are used to solve the nonlinear system.
rk5 This uses the 'dopri5' solver, which is a variable step
Runge-Kutta method of order (4)5 (use for non-stiff ODE)
rk8 This uses the 'dop853' solver, which is a variable step
Runge-Kutta method of order 8(5,3)
======= ==============================================================
For educational purposes, you can also access following methods:
======= ==============================================================
Method Meaning
======= ==============================================================
beuler This is the Implicit Euler (backward Euler) method (order 1),
which is obtained via the 'bdf' method, setting the order
option to 1, setting large tolerances, and fixing the
stepsize.
Use option 'step' to change stepsize, default: step=0.05.
Use option 'rtol' and 'atol' to use more strict tolerances
Note: this is not completely the backward Euler method, as
the cvode solver has added control options!
trapz This is the Trapezoidal Rule method (order 2), which is
obtained via the 'admo' method, setting option order to 2,
setting large tolerances and fixing the stepsize.
Use option 'step' to change stepsize, default: step=0.05.
Use option 'rtol' and 'atol' to use more strict tolerances
Note: The cvode solver might change the order to 1 internally
in which case this becomes beuler method. Set atol, rtol
options as strict as possible.
======= ==============================================================
You can also access the solvers of ode via their names:
======= ==============================================================
Method Meaning
======= ==============================================================
cvode This uses the 'cvode' solver
dopri5 This uses the 'dopri5' solver
dop853 This uses the 'dop853' solver
======= ==============================================================
options : extra solver options, optional
Every solver has it's own extra options, see the ode class and the
details of the solvers available there to know the options possible per
solver
Returns
-------
solution : named tuple
A single named tuple is returned containing the result of the
integration.
======== ==========================================
Field Meaning
======== ==========================================
flag An integer flag
values Named tuple with fields t and y
errors Named tuple with fields t and y
roots Named tuple with fields t and y
tstop Named tuple with fields t and y
message String with message in case of an error
======== ==========================================
See Also
--------
scikits.odes.ode.ode : a more object-oriented integrator
scikits.odes.dae.dae : a solver for differential-algebraic equations
scipy.integrate.quad : for finding the area under a curve
Examples
--------
The second order differential equation for the angle `theta` of a
pendulum acted on by gravity with friction can be written:
.. math:: \\theta''(t) + b \\theta'(t) + c \\sin(\\theta(t)) = 0
where `b` and `c` are positive constants, and a prime (') denotes a
derivative. To solve this equation with `odeint`, we must first convert
it to a system of first order equations. By defining the angular
velocity ``omega(t) = theta'(t)``, we obtain the system:
.. math:: \\theta'(t) = \\omega(t)
\\omega'(t) = -b \\omega(t) - c \\sin(\\theta(t))
We assume the constants are `b` = 0.25 and `c` = 5.0:
>>> b = 0.25
>>> c = 5.0
Let `y` be the vector [`theta`, `omega`]. We implement this system
in python as:
>>> def pend(t, y, out):
... theta, omega = y
... out[:] = [omega, -b*omega - c*np.sin(theta)]
...
In case you want b and c easily changable, make pend a class method, and
consider attributes b and c accessible via `self.b` and `self.c`.
For initial conditions, we assume the pendulum is nearly vertical
with `theta(0)` = `pi` - 0.1, and it initially at rest, so
`omega(0)` = 0. Then the vector of initial conditions is
>>> y0 = [np.pi - 0.1, 0.0]
We generate a solution 101 evenly spaced samples in the interval
0 <= `t` <= 10. So our array of times is
>>> t = np.linspace(0, 10, 101)
Call `odeint` to generate the solution.
>>> from scikits.odes.odeint import odeint
>>> sol = odeint(pend, t, y0)
The solution is a named tuple `sol`. sol.values.y is an array with shape (101, 2).
The first column is `theta(t)`, and the second is `omega(t)`.
The following code plots both components.
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> plt.plot(sol.values.t, sol.values.y[:, 0], 'b', label='theta(t)')
>>> plt.plot(sol.values.t, sol.values.y[:, 1], 'g', label='omega(t)')
>>> plt.legend(loc='best')
>>> plt.xlabel('t')
>>> plt.grid()
>>> plt.show()
"""
t = copy(tout)
y0 = copy(y0)
int_name = 'cvode'
#always use old api
options['old_api'] = False
if (method == 'bdf'):
int_name = 'cvode'
elif (method == 'admo'):
options['lmm_type'] = 'ADAMS'
options['nonlinsolver'] = 'fixedpoint'
int_name = 'cvode'
elif (method == 'rk5'):
int_name = 'dopri5'
elif (method == 'rk8'):
int_name = 'dop853'
elif (method == 'beuler' or method == 'trapz'):
int_name = 'cvode'
options['order'] = 1
if not options.has_key('step'):
options['step'] = 0.05
options['min_step_size'] = options['step']
options['max_step_size'] = options['step']
#no error control possible, try to disable it:
if not options.has_key('atol'):
options['atol'] = 1e3
if not options.has_key('rtol'):
options['rtol'] = 1e3
del options['step']
if (method == 'trapz'):
options['lmm_type'] = 'ADAMS'
options['nonlinsolver'] = 'fixedpoint'
options['order'] = 2
else:
int_name = method
solver = ode(int_name, rhsfun, **options)
return solver.solve(t, y0)
```